Catholic Today
Today’s Saints, Feasts & Solemnities, All Catholic Related History for this Day and the Daily Mass Readings for both the EF & OF of the Latin Rite

Today in the year of Our Lord 2016, is the Feast of Saint Bonaventure, Bishop, Confessor, and Doctor of the Church and St. Swithin’s Day




Saint Bonaventure (1221-1274) 

He entered the Franciscan Order in 1243 and studied at the University of Paris, in 1253 he held the Franciscan chair at Paris. Unfortunately for Bonaventure, a dispute between seculars and mendicants delayed his reception as Master until 1257, where his degree was taken in company with Thomas Aquinas. Three years earlier his fame had earned him the position of lecturer on the The Four Books of Sentences—a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the twelfth century—and in 1255 he received the degree of master, the medieval equivalent of doctor.

After having successfully defended his order against the reproaches of the anti-mendicant party, he was elected Minister General of the Franciscan Order. On 24 November 1265, he was selected for the post of Archbishop of York; however, he was never consecrated and resigned the appointment in October 1266.

During his tenure, the General Chapter of Narbonne, held in 1260, promulgated a decree prohibiting the publication of any work out of the order without permission from the higher superiors. This prohibition has induced modern writers to pass severe judgment upon Roger Bacon‘s superiors being envious of Bacon’s abilities. However, the prohibition enjoined on Bacon was a general one, which extended to the whole order. Its promulgation was not directed against him, but rather against Gerard of Borgo San Donnino. Gerard had published in 1254 without permission a heretical work,Introductorius in Evangelium æternum (An Introduction to the Eternal Gospel). Thereupon the General Chapter of Narbonne promulgated the above-mentioned decree, identical with the “constitutio gravis in contrarium” Bacon speaks of. The above-mentioned prohibition was rescinded in Roger’s favour unexpectedly in 1266.


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Bonaventure was instrumental in procuring the election of Pope Gregory X, who rewarded him with the title of Cardinal Bishop of Albano, and insisted on his presence at the great Second Council of Lyon in 1274. There, after his significant contributions led to a union of the Greek and Latin churches, Bonaventure died suddenly and in suspicious circumstances. The 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia has citations that suggest he was poisoned, but no mention is made of this in the 2003 second edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia

He steered the Franciscans on a moderate and intellectual course that made them the most prominent order in the Church until the coming of the Jesuits. His theology was marked by an attempt completely to integrate faith and reason. He thought of Christ as the “one true master” who offers humans knowledge that begins in faith, is developed through rational understanding, and is perfected by mystical union with God.

Bonaventure was formally canonised in 1484 by the Franciscan Pope Sixtus IV, and ranked along with Thomas Aquinas as the greatest of the Doctors of the Church by another Franciscan, Pope Sixtus V, in 1587. Bonaventure was regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages.


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Bonaventure wrote on almost every subject treated by the Schoolmen, and his writings are very numerous. The greater number of them deal with philosophy and theology. No work of Bonaventure’s is exclusively philosophical and bear striking witness to the mutual interpenetration of philosophy and theology that is a distinguishing mark of the Scholastic period.

Like Thomas Aquinas, with whom he shared numerous profound agreements in matters theological and philosophical, he combated the Aristotelian notion of the eternity of the world vigorously. Bonaventure accepts the Platonic doctrine that ideas do not exist in rerum natura, but as ideals exemplified by the Divine Being, according to which actual things were formed; and this conception has no slight influence upon his philosophy. Due to this philosophy, physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein contended that Bonaventure showed strong pandeistic inclinations.Like all the great scholastic doctors, Bonaventura starts with the discussion of the relations between reason and faith. All the sciences are but the handmaids of theology; reason can discover some of the moral truths that form the groundwork of the Christian system, but others it can only receive and apprehend through divine illumination. To obtain this illumination, the soul must employ the proper means, which are prayer, the exercise of the virtues, whereby it is rendered fit to accept the divine light, and meditation that may rise even to ecstatic union with God. The supreme end of life is such union, union in contemplation or intellect and in intense absorbing love; but it cannot be entirely reached in this life, and remains as a hope for the future.


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A master of the memorable phrase, Bonaventure held that philosophy opens the mind to at least three different routes humans can take on their journey to God. Non-intellectual material creatures he conceived as shadows and vestiges (literally, footprints) of God, understood as the ultimate cause of a world philosophical reason can prove was created at a first moment in time. Intellectual creatures he conceived of as images and likenesses of God, the workings of the human mind and will leading us to God understood as illuminator of knowledge and donor of grace and virtue. The final route to God is the route of being, in which Bonaventure brought Anselm‘s argument together with Aristotelian and Neoplatonic metaphysics to view God as the absolutely perfect being whose essence entails its existence, an absolutely simple being that causes all other, composite beings to exist.

Bonaventure, however, is not only a meditative thinker, whose works may form good manuals of devotion; he is a dogmatic theologian of high rank, and on all the disputed questions of scholastic thought, such as universals, matter, the principle of individualism, or the intellectus agens, he gives weighty and well-reasoned decisions. He agrees with Saint Albert the Great in regarding theology as a practical science; its truths, according to his view, are peculiarly adapted to influence the affections. He discusses very carefully the nature and meaning of the divine attributes; considers universals to be the ideal forms pre-existing in the divine mind according to which things were shaped; holds matter to be pure potentiality that receives individual being and determinateness from the formative power of God, acting according to the ideas; and finally maintains that the intellectus agens has no separate existence. On these and on many other points of scholastic philosophy the “Seraphic Doctor” exhibits a combination of subtlety and moderation, which makes his works particularly valuable.

In form and intent the work of St. Bonaventure is always the work of a theologian; he writes as one for whom the only angle of vision and the proximate criterion of truth is the Christian faith.


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St. Swithin’s Day (800-862)

He was a secular clerk with something of a reputation for virtue and learning. He was attached to the West Saxon court and was one of King Egbert’s principal advisers. He was given the king’s son, Ethelwulf, the father of Alfred the Great, to educate; and to him must go some of the credit for the strongly religious tone of the West Saxon court under Ethelwulf and his sons.

He was consecrated bishop of Winchester in 852, and as bishop was something of a builder. He may also have been one of the first contributors to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. A number of agreeably humble miracles were attributed to him – he was said to have restored a basket of eggs dropped by an old market woman when crossing a bridge. His great reputation for sanctity is, however, largely owing to the cult which sprang up at Winchester a hundred years after his death, in the time of St Ethelwold and the monastic reformation, when his body was translated. His shrine was splendid, but when it was looted by Henry VIII in 1538 its gold and jewels were found to be false.

When he died he was buried at his own request in the churchyard, in order that the passers-by would walk over his grave and the rain fall upon it. It is always said that if it rains on his feast day, it will rain for forty days after, similar stories are told of Saints Medard, Gervase and Protase in France.


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In an effort to include all Catholics, those who go to the EF & OF of the Latin Rite, you may notice some Saints not mentioned in your Missal or Liturgical Calendar – this is because we are including all Saints from both Calendars. Because of this some Feast days will be repeated throughout the year



Today in Catholic History

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Today in 1099First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final assault of a difficult siege.

On 7 June, the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuqs by the Fatimids only the year before. Many Crusaders wept upon seeing the city they had journeyed so long to reach. As with Antioch the crusaders put the city to a siege, in which the crusaders themselves probably suffered more than the citizens of the city, due to the lack of food and water around Jerusalem. The city was well-prepared for the siege, and the Fatimid governor Iftikhar ad-Daula had expelled most of the Christians. Of the estimated 5,000 knights who took part in the Princes’ Crusade, only about 1,500 remained, along with another 12,000 healthy foot-soldiers (out of perhaps as many as 30,000). A direct assault on the walls on June 13 was a failure. Without water or food, both men and animals were quickly dying of thirst and starvation and the crusaders knew time was not on their side.

On the night of July 14, the crusaders launched a two-pronged assault on the walls. One tower was to the south, the other to the northwest. The Muslims knew that if one siege tower breached the walls, Jerusalem would fall. The Muslims pelted the first siege tower with flaming arrows and pots of oil until it went up in flames. Now, only one siege tower was left, to the northwest under the command of the revered Duke Godfrey. Godfrey’s tower took two hours to reach the weak spot of the walls near the northeast corner gate. According to the Gesta two Flemish knights from Tournai named Lethalde and Engelbert were the first to cross into the city, followed by Godfrey, his brother Eustace, Tancred, and their men. Raymond’s tower was at first stopped by a ditch, but as the other crusaders had already entered, the Muslim guarding the gate retreated.

Following the battle, Godfrey of Bouillon was made Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (“advocate” or “defender of the Holy Sepulchre“) on July 22, refusing to be named king in the city where Christ had died, saying that he refused to wear a crown of gold in the city where Christ wore a crown of thorns. On August 5, Arnulf, after consulting the surviving inhabitants of the city, discovered the relic of the True Cross.

On August 12, Godfrey led an army, with the True Cross carried in the vanguard, against the Fatimid army at the Battle of Ascalon. The crusaders were successful, but following the victory, the majority of them considered their crusading vows to have been fulfilled, and all but a few hundred knights returned home. Nevertheless, their victory paved the way for the establishment of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

 

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Today in 1149 – The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the Roman emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD built a temple dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite in order to bury the cave in which Jesus had been buried. The first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, ordered in about 325/326 that the temple be replaced by a Church. During the building of the Church, Constantine’s mother, Helena, is believed to have rediscovered the “True Cross“, which tradition holds that when she found three crosses she tested each by having it held over a corpse and when the corpse rose up under one, that was the true cross and a tomb.

  • 325/326 – The Church was built.
  • 13 September 335 – Consecrated.
  • May of 614 – Damaged by fire in  when the Sassanid Empire, under Khosrau II, invaded Jerusalem and captured the True Cross.
  • 630 – Restored by the Emperor Heraclius when he recaptured and rebuilt the Church.
  • 746 – The building suffered severe damage due to an earthquake.
  • Early 9th century, another earthquake damaged the dome of the Anastasis.
  • 841 – The Church suffered a fire.
  • 935 – The Orthodox Christians prevented the construction of a Muslim mosque adjacent the Church.
  • 938 – A new fire damaged the inside of the basilica and came close to the roundabout.
  • 966 – Due to a defeat of Muslim armies in the region of Syria, a riot broke out and was followed by reprisals. The basilica was burned again. The doors and roof were burnt, and the Patriarch John VII was murdered.
  • 18 October 1009 – Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the complete destruction of the Church as part of a more general campaign against Christian places of worship in Palestine and Egypt. The damage was extensive, with few parts of the early Church remaining.
  • 1027/8 – In wide ranging negotiations between the Fatimids and the Byzantine Empire, an agreement was reached whereby the new Caliph Ali az-Zahir (Al-Hakim’s son) agreed to allow the rebuilding and redecoration of the Church.
  • 1048 – The rebuilding was finally completed with the financing at a huge expense by Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos and Patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople.

Western pilgrims to Jerusalem during the eleventh century found much of the sacred site in ruins.” Control of Jerusalem, and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, continued to change hands several times between the Fatimids and the Seljuk Turks (loyal to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad) until the arrival of the Crusaders in 1099.

William of Tyre, chronicler of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, reports on the renovation of the Church in the mid-12th century. The crusaders investigated the eastern ruins on the site, occasionally excavating through the rubble, and while attempting to reach the cistern, they discovered part of the original ground level of Hadrian’s temple enclosure; they decided to transform this space into a chapel dedicated to Helena (the Chapel of Saint Helena), widening their original excavation tunnel into a proper staircase. The crusaders began to refurnish the Church in a Romanesque style and added a bell tower. These renovations unified the small chapels on the site and were completed during the reign of Queen Melisende in 1149, placing all the Holy places under one roof for the first time. The Church became the seat of the first Latin Patriarchs, and was also the site of the kingdom’s scriptorium. The Church was lost to Saladin, along with the rest of the city, in 1187, although the treaty established after the Third Crusade allowed for Christian pilgrims to visit the site. Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220–50) regained the city and the Church by treaty in the 13th century, while he himself was under a ban of excommunication, leading to the curious result of the holiest Church in Christianity being laid under interdict. The Church seems to have been largely in Greek Orthodox Patriarch Athanasius II of Jerusalem‘s hands, ca. 1231–47, during the Latin control of Jerusalem. Both city and Church were captured by the Khwarezmians in 1244.

  • 1555 – The Franciscan friars rebuilt the Aedicule, extending the structure to create an ante-chamber.
  • After the renovation of 1555, control of the church oscillated between the Franciscans and the Orthodox, depending on which community could obtain a favorable “firman” from the “Sublime Porte” at a particular time, often through outright bribery, and violent clashes were not uncommon. There was no agreement about this question, although it was discussed at the negotiations to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.
  • 1767 – Weary of the squabbling, the “Porte” issued a “firman” that divided the church among the claimants.
  • 1808 – A fire severely damaged the structure again in , causing the dome of the Rotunda to collapse and smashing the Edicule’s exterior decoration.
  • 1809–1810 – The Rotunda and the Edicule’s exterior were rebuilt by architect Nikolaos Ch. Komnenos of Mytilene in the then current Ottoman Baroque style.
  • 1853 – Decree from the sultan solidified the existing territorial division among the communities and set a “status quo” for arrangements to “remain forever,” causing differences of opinion about upkeep and even minor changes, including disagreement on the removal of the “Immovable Ladder,” an exterior ladder under one of the windows; this ladder has remained in the same position since then.

 

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Today in 1207 – King John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop Stephen Langton.

When the Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter, died on 13 July 1205, John became involved in a dispute with Pope Innocent III that would lead to the king’s excommunication.

John wanted John de Gray, the Bishop of Norwich and one of his own supporters, to be appointed Archbishop of Canterbury after the death of Walter, but the Cathedral chapter for Canterbury Cathedral claimed the exclusive right to elect Walter’s successor. They favoured Reginald, the chapter’s sub-prior. John forced the Canterbury chapter to change their support to John de Gray, and a messenger was sent to Rome to inform the papacy of the new decision. Innocent disavowed both Reginald and John de Gray, and instead appointed his own candidate, Stephen Langton. John refused Innocent’s request that he consent to Langton’s appointment, but the Pope consecrated Langton anyway in June 1207.

John was incensed about what he perceived as an abrogation of his customary right as monarch to influence the election. He complained both about the choice of Langton as an individual, as John felt he was overly influenced by the Capetian court in Paris, and about the process as a whole. He barred Langton from entering England and seized the lands of the archbishopric and other papal possessions. Innocent set a commission in place to try to convince John to change his mind, but to no avail. Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March 1208, prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying.

John treated the interdict as “the equivalent of a papal declaration of war”. He responded by attempting to punish Innocent personally and to drive a wedge between those English clergy that might support him and those allying themselves firmly with the authorities in Rome. John seized the lands of those clergy unwilling to conduct services, as well as those estates linked to Innocent himself; he arrested the illicit concubines that many clerics kept during the period, only releasing them after the payment of fines; he seized the lands of members of the Church who had fled England, and he promised protection for those clergy willing to remain loyal to him. In many cases, individual institutions were able to negotiate terms for managing their own properties and keeping the produce of their estates. By 1209 the situation showed no signs of resolution, and Innocent threatened to excommunicate John if he did not acquiesce to Langton’s appointment. When this threat failed, Innocent excommunicated the king in November 1209 and in January Philip II of France had been charged with deposing John on behalf of the Papacy.

Under mounting political pressure, John finally negotiated terms for a reconciliation, and the papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulf Verraccio in May 1213 at the Templar Church at Dover. As part of the deal, John offered to surrender the Kingdom of England to the papacy for a feudal service of 1,000 marks annually, as well as recompensing the Church for revenue lost during the crisis. The agreement was formalised in the Bulla Aurea, or Golden Bull.  

 

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Today in 1240 – Swedish–Novgorodian Wars: A Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.

Swedish–Novgorodian Wars were a series of conflicts in the 12th and 13th centuries between the Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden over control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital to the Hanseatic League and part of the Varangian-Byzantine trade route.

The Swedish attacks against Orthodox Russians had religious overtones, but before the 14th century there is no knowledge of official Crusade bulls issued by the Pope.

 

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Today in 1410 – German knight Ulrich von Jungingen, receives his eternal reward (b. 1360)

In 1404 Ulrich was appointed the Order’s Marshal (i.e. military leader) and Komtur of Königsberg. He had to deal with several Samogitian uprisings, which he fought both with strict suppression and bribery of the local nobles. Upon the sudden death of Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen in 1407, Ulrich on 26 June, was chosen for his succession.

The Polish ambassador Archbishop Mikołaj Kurowski declared, that any attack on Lithuania would inevitably entail an armed conflict with Poland. Despite the threat of a two-front war, Ulrich prepared for an preemptive strike. He forged an alliance with King Sigismund of Hungary, levied mercenaries in the Holy Roman Empire, and on 6 August 1409 declared war against Poland.

Though Ulrich received no help from his ally King Sigismund, who stuck in the conflict with his cousin Jobst of Moravia over the election as King of the Romans, the Order’s forces at first successfully campaigned Dobrzyń and Kuyavia and laid siege to Bydgoszcz. Sigismund’s brother King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia arranged a temporary truce and mediated between the belligerents, though without result. On 2 July 1410, the Grand Master at the head of his army left Malbork Castle for the final battle against the united Polish and Lithuanian forces. Both sides met on 15 July between the villages of Grunwald (Grünfelde) and Stębark (Tannenberg). As until noontide none of the armies made a move, Ulrich, according to the annals of Jan Długosz, had two swords delivered to King Jogaila with the remark he and Witold(Vytautas) may finally live or die by them.

This act, seen as a bold provocation, sparked the Lithuanian attack, at first repulsed by the Knights but soon followed by a second strike by Jogaila’s forces. Battle luck changed, after Ulrich, sure of victory, decided to personally lead his remaining regiments against the Polish troops. He nearly got hold of the king, but at the same time lost oversight of the Order’s military operations. After the allied Prussian forces of the Lizard Union under Nicholas von Renys broke away, the Grand Master had to face the superior numbers of the Polish-Lithuanian union. When the Lithuanians attacked him from the rear, Ulrich’s troops were routed and he himself was killed in action. King Jogaila arranged the transportation of his body to Malbork Castle before he began the Siege of Marienburg.

 

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Today in 1410 – Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War: Battle of Grunwald: The allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeat the army of the Teutonic Order.

In 1230, the Teutonic Knights, a crusading military order, moved to the Kulmerland(today within the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship) and, upon the request of Konrad I, king of the Masovian Slavs, launched the Prussian Crusade against the paganPrussian clans. With support from the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor, the Teutons conquered and converted the Prussians by the 1280s and shifted their attention to the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania. For about a hundred years the Knights fought theLithuanian Crusade raiding the Lithuanian lands, particularly Samogitia as it separated the Knights in Prussia from their branch in Livonia.

In 1385, Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania proposed to marry reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland in the Union of Kreva. Jogaila converted to Christianity and was crowned as the King of Poland thus creating a personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The official Lithuanian conversion to Christianityremoved the religious rationale for the Order’s activities in the area. However the Knights responded by publicly contesting the sincerity of Jogaila’s conversion, bringing the charge to a papal court.

The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights. Inspired by the local Samogitian uprising, the war began by Teutonic invasion of Poland in August 1409. As neither side was ready for a full-scale war, Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, brokered a nine-month truce. After the truce expired in June 1410, the military-religious monks were decisively defeated in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg), one of the largest battles in medieval Europe. Most of the Teutonic leadership was killed or taken prisoner. While defeated, the Teutonic Knights withstood the siege on their capital in Marienburg (Malbork) and suffered only minimal territorial losses in the Peace of Thorn (1411). Territorial disputes lasted until the Peace of Melno of 1422. However, the Knights never recovered their former power and the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and economic decline in their lands. The war shifted the balance of power in Eastern Europe and marked the rise of the Polish–Lithuanian union as the dominant power in the region.

 

 

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Today in 1609Annibale Carracci, Italian painter and illustrator receives his eternal reward (b. 1560)

The tradition of Italian Renaissance painting and the mature Renaissance artists like Raphael, Michelangelo, Correggio, Titian and Veronese are all painters who had a considerable influence on the work of the Carracci, in his use of colours. Carrci laid the foundations for the birth of Baroque painting. The preceding sterile Mannerist style had its recovery now in the Baroque painting in the early sixteenth century, succeeding in an original synthesis of the many schools. The paintings of Annibale are inspired by the Venetian pictorial taste and especially the paintings of Paolo Veronese. The work that show traces of it are the Madonna Enthroned with Saint Matthew, a work made for Reggio Emilia and now in the Gemäldegalerie, Dresden, and the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria (ca. 1575), now preserved at the Gallerie dell’Accademia in Venice.

 

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Today in 1655 Girolamo Rainaldi, Italian architect receives his eternal reward (b. 1570)

He trained with the architect-engineer Domenico Fontana and collaborated as a junior partner with Giacomo Della Porta, whom he succeeded as the papacy’s chief architect, under the patronage of Pope Sixtus V. He became the chief Papal architect of Rome in 1602, and thus was constantly at work on lesser projects such as altars and church furnishings, and with on-going projects of other designers, especially at St Peter’s and in completing Michelangelo‘s project at the Campidoglio with the Palazzo Nuovo discreetly designed to mirror Michelangelo’s masterful Palazzo dei Conservatori.

Rainaldi’s most influential single design was the façade of the Chiesa di Gesù e Maria; the project began in 1642, and was not completed before Rainaldi’s death. In his official capacity Rainaldi also designed the palazzo to house the Jesuits in the Piazza del Gesù, a Mannerist façade without a trace of Baroque in its details. As the favored architect of Cardinal Pamphili, he temporarily eclipsed Bernini when this cardinal became Pope as Innocent X in 1644. The elder Rainaldi’s important projects in Rome the Palazzo Pamphilj in Piazza Navona (c. 1645 – 1650), where he designed the ground plan of Sant’Agnese and laid its foundations beginning in 1652, but was replaced the following year by Francesco Borromini, who erected quite a different façade on Rainaldi’s foundations; after Rainaldi’s death his son Carlo was called in to replace Borromini.

 

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Today in 1808 – English Cardinal Henry Edward Manning, an Anglican convert, is born (d. 1892)

Manning’s belief in Anglicanism was shattered in 1850 when, in the so-called Gorham judgement, the Privy Council ordered the Church of England to institute an Evangelical cleric who denied that the sacrament of baptism had an objective effect of baptismal regeneration. The denial of the objective effect of the sacraments was to Manning and many others a grave heresy, contradicting the clear tradition of the Christian Church from the Fathers of the Church on. That a civil and secular court had the power to force the Church of England to accept someone with such an unorthodox opinion proved to him that, far from being a divinely created institution, that church was merely a man-made creation of the English Parliament.

The following year, on 6 April 1851, Manning was received into the Catholic Church and soon afterwards, on 14 June 1851, was ordained a Catholic priest. Given his great abilities and prior fame, he quickly rose to a position of influence, and in 1865 he was appointed Archbishop of Westminster.

Among his accomplishments as head of the Catholic Church in England were the acquisition of the site for Westminster Cathedral and a greatly expanded system of Roman Catholic education, including the establishment of the short lived Catholic University College in Kensington. In 1875 Manning was created Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, becoming His Eminence The Most Rev. Dr Henry Edward Cardinal Manning, Lord Archbishop of Westminster. Cardinal Manning participated in the conclave that elected Pope Leo XIII in 1878.

Manning was very influential in setting the direction of the modern Catholic Church. His warm relations with Pope Pius IX and his ultramontane views gained him the trust of the Vatican. Manning used this goodwill to promote a modern Roman Catholic view of social justice. These views are reflected in the papal encyclical Rerum novarum issued by Leo XIII which marks the beginning of modern Roman Catholic social justice teaching.

Manning was among the strongest supporters of the doctrine of papal infallibility, unlike Cardinal Newman who believed the doctrine but thought it might not be prudent to define it formally at the time.

He had a significant role in the conversion of notable figures including Elizabeth Belloc, the mother of the famous British author Hilaire Belloc, upon whose thinking Manning had a profound influence.

When Manning died his estate was probated at £3,527. He received a formal burial at St Mary’s Roman Catholic Cemetery in Kensal Green. Some years later, in 1907, his remains were transferred to the newly completed Westminster Cathedral.

 

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Today in 1834 – The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition , commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was established in 1480 by King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The “Spanish Inquisition” may be defined broadly, operating “in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America.” (For the period during which Portugal and Spain were under common rule consult Portuguese Inquisition and Goa Inquisition.)

The Inquisition was first abolished during the domination of Napoleon and the reign of Joseph Bonaparte (1808–1812). In 1813, the liberal deputies of the Cortes of Cádiz also obtained its abolition, largely as a result of the Holy Office’s condemnation of the popular revolt against French invasion. But the Inquisition was reconstituted when Ferdinand VII recovered the throne on 1 July 1814.

Finally, on 15 July 1834, the Spanish Inquisition was definitively abolished by a Royal Decree signed by regent Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand VII’s liberal widow, during the minority of Isabella II and with the approval of the President of the Cabinet Francisco Martínez de la Rosa.

Is there a noteworthy historical date that isn’t mentioned, leave a comment and let us know




Mass Readings according to the 1960 Rubrics of the Latin Rite

(Extraordinary Form)

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Lesson / Lectio

Ecclesiasticus 31: 8-11

Blessed is the man that is found without blemish, and that hath not gone after gold, nor put his trust in money nor in treasures. Who is he, and we will praise him? for he hath done wonderful things in his life. Who hath been tried thereby, and made perfect, he shall have glory everlasting: he that could have transgressed, and hath not transgressed: and could do evil things, and hath not done them: therefore are his goods established in the Lord, and all the Church of the Saints shall declare his alms.

R. Thanks be to God.

 

BEATUS vir, qui inventus est sine macula: et qui post aurum non abiit, nec speravit in pecunia et thesauris. Quis est hic, et laudabimus eum? fecit enim mirabilia invita sua. Qui probatus est in illo, et perfectus est, erit illi gloria æterna: qui potuit transgredi, et non est transgressus: facere mala, et non fecit: ideo stabilita sunt bona illius in Domino, et eleemosynas illius ennarrabit omnis ecclesia sanctorum.

R. Deo gratias.

Gradual / Graduale

1964=The celebrant is not to say privately those parts sung or recited by the Choir or congregation; he may sing or recite along

Psalm 91: 13, 14, 3

The Just shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow up like the cedar of Libanus in the house of the Lord. To show forth Thy mercy in the morning, and Thy truth in the night.

 

JUSTUS ut palma florebit: sicut cedrus Libani multiplicabitur in domo Domini. Ad annuntiandum mane misericordiam tuam, et veritatem tuam per noctem.

ALLELUIA

James 1: 12

Alleluia. Alleluia. Blessed is the man that endureth temptation for when he hath been proved, he shall receive the crown of life. Alleluia.

 

ALLELUIA, alleluia. Beatus vir, qui suffert tentationem: quoniam cum probatus fuerit, accipiet coronam vitæ. Alleluia.

Gospel / Evangelium

The Missal is transferred to the other side of the altar to symbolize that the divine favor was taken away from the unfaithful Jews and given to the Gentiles. At Low Masses, the priest, bowing down at the middle of the altar, with his hands joined, says:

Si vero Sacerdos sine Diacono et Subdiacono celebrat, de-lato libro ad aliud cornu Altaris, inclinatus in medio, iunctis manibus dicit:

Cleanse my heart and my lips, O almighty God, who didst cleanse the lips of the prophet Isaias with a burning coal, and vouchsafe, through Thy gracious mercy, so to purify me, that I may worthily announce Thy holy Gospel. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Give me Thy blessing, O Lord. The Lord be in my heart and on my lips, that I may worthily and in a becoming manner, proclaim His holy Gospel. Amen.

P. The Lord be with you.
S. And with thy spirit.
Continuation ☩ of the Holy Gospel according to Luke
R. Glory be to Thee, O Lord.

 

Munda cor meum, ac labia mea, omnípotens Deus, qui labia Isaíæ Prophétæ cálculo mundásti igníto: ita me tua grata miseratióne dignáre mundáre, ut sanctum Evangélium tuum digne váleam nuntiáre. Per Christum, Dóminum nostrum. Amen.

Iube, Dómine, benedícere. Dóminus sit in corde meo et in lábiis meis: ut digne et competénter annúntiem Evangélium suum. Amen.

Deinde, conversus ad librum, iunctis manibus, dicit:
V. Dóminus vobíscum.
R. Et cum spíritu tuo.

Sequéntia ✠ sancti Evangélii secúndum Matthaeum.
R. Gloria tibi, Domine!

Luke 12: 35-40

At that time, Jesus said to His disciples: Let your loins be girt and lamps burning in your hands, and you yourselves like to men who wait for their lord, when he shall return from the wedding: that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open to him immediately. Blessed are those servants whom the Lord, when he cometh, shall find watching: amen I say to you that he will girt himself and make them sit down to meat, and passing will minister unto them. And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants. But this know ye, that if the householder did know at what hour the thief would come, he would surely watch. and would not suffer his house to be broken open. Be you then also ready, for at what hour you think not the Son of man will come.

R. Praise be to Thee, O Christ.
S. By the words of the Gospel may our sins be blotted out.

 

IN illo tempore: Dixit Jesus discipulis suis: Sint lumbi vestri præcincti, et lucernæ ardentes in manibus vestris, et vos similes hominibus expectantibus dominum suum, quando revertatur a nuptiis: ut, cum venerit, et pulsaverit, confestim aperiant ei. Beati servi illi, quos, cum venerit dominus, invenerit vigilantes: amen dico vobis, quod præcinget se, et faciet illos discumbere, et transiens ministrabit illis. Et si venerit in secunda vigilia, et si in tertia vigilia venerit, et ita invenerit, beati sunt servi illi. Hoc autem scitote, quoniam si sciret paterfamilias, qua hora fur venerit, vigilaret utique et non sineret perfodi domum suam. Et vos estote parati, quia qua hora non putatis, Filius hominis veniet.

R. Laus tibi, Christe!
S. Per Evangelica dicta, deleantur nostra delicta.

Homily is obligatory in Sunday Holy Days of obligations and if some number of faithful are gathered for the Mass

Post Communion / Postcommunio

Refreshed by meat and drink from heaven, O God, we humbly entreat Thee, that we may be protected by the prayers of him in whose memory we have partaken. Through our Lord.

 

REFECTI cibo potuque cælesti, Deus noster, te supplices exoramus: ut in cujus hæc commemoratione percepimus, ejus muniamur et precibus. Per Dominum.

Leo_XIII.
Pope Leo XIII

Oratio Leonis XIII

S. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructis ventris tui, Iesus.
O. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
S. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructis ventris tui, Iesus.
O. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
S. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructis ventris tui, Iesus.
O. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.

O. Salve Regina, Mater misericordiae, vita, dulcedo, et spes nostra, salve. Ad te clamamus, exsules filii Evae. Ad te suspiramus gementes et fientes in hac lacrymarum valle. Eia ergo, Advocata nostra, illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos converte. Et Iesum, benedictum fructum ventris tui, nobis, post hoc exilium, ostende. O clemens, o pia, o dulcis Virgo Maria.
S. Ora pro nobis, sancta Dei Genitrix.
O. Ut digni efficiamur promissionibus Christi.

S. Orémus. Deus, refúgium nostrum et virtus, populum ad te clamantem propitius respice; et intercedente gloriosa, et immaculata Virgine Dei Genitrice Maria, cum beato Ioseph, eius Sponso, ac beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, et omnibus Sanctis, quas pro conversione peccatorum, pro libertate et exaltatione sanctae Matris Ecclesiae, preces effundimus, misericors et benignus exaudi. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

O. Sancte Michaël Archangele, defende nos in proelio; contra nequitiam et insidias diaboli esto praesidium. Imperet illi Deus, supplices deprecamur: tuque, Princeps militiae Caelestis, satanam aliosque spiritus malignos, qui ad perditionem animarum pervagantur in mundo, divina virtute in infernum detrude. Amen.

S. Cor Iesu sacratissimum.
O. Miserere nobis.
S. Cor Iesu sacratissimum.
O. Miserere nobis.
S. Cor Iesu sacratissimum.
O. Miserere nobis.




Mass Readings according to 2002 Rubrics of the Latin Rite Ordinary Form

USA Translation is from the The New American Bible, Revised Edition (NABRE) Source USCCB Website

UK Translation is from the Jerusalem Bible Source Universalis Website

rosary-bible

According to the USCCB -The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, the ICBC The Irish Conference of Catholic Bishops and the CBCEW The Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales

USA

Reading 1 : Isaiah 38:1-6, 21-22, 7-8

When Hezekiah was mortally ill,
the prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz, came and said to him:
“Thus says the LORD: Put your house in order,
for you are about to die; you shall not recover.”
Then Hezekiah turned his face to the wall and prayed to the LORD:“O LORD, remember how faithfully and wholeheartedly
I conducted myself in your presence,
doing what was pleasing to you!”
And Hezekiah wept bitterly.

Then the word of the LORD came to Isaiah: “Go, tell Hezekiah:
Thus says the LORD, the God of your father David:
I have heard your prayer and seen your tears.
I will heal you: in three days you shall go up to the LORD’s temple;
I will add fifteen years to your life.
I will rescue you and this city from the hand of the king of Assyria;
I will be a shield to this city.”

Isaiah then ordered a poultice of figs to be taken
and applied to the boil, that he might recover.
Then Hezekiah asked,
“What is the sign that I shall go up to the temple of the LORD?”

Isaiah answered:
“This will be the sign for you from the LORD
that he will do what he has promised:
See, I will make the shadow cast by the sun
on the stairway to the terrace of Ahaz
go back the ten steps it has advanced.”
So the sun came back the ten steps it had advanced.

Responsorial Psalm : Isaiah 38:10, 11, 12ABCD, 16

R. (see 17b) You saved my life, O Lord; I shall not die.
Once I said,
“In the noontime of life I must depart!
To the gates of the nether world I shall be consigned
for the rest of my years.”
R. You saved my life, O Lord; I shall not die.
I said, “I shall see the LORD no more
in the land of the living.
No longer shall I behold my fellow men
among those who dwell in the world.”
R. You saved my life, O Lord; I shall not die.
My dwelling, like a shepherd’s tent,
is struck down and borne away from me;
You have folded up my life, like a weaver
who severs the last thread.
R. You saved my life, O Lord; I shall not die.
Those live whom the LORD protects;
yours is the life of my spirit.
You have given me health and life.
R. You saved my life, O Lord; I shall not die.

Alleluia : John 10:27

R. Alleluia, alleluia.
My sheep hear my voice, says the Lord;
I know them, and they follow me.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.

Gospel : Mathew 12:1-8

Jesus was going through a field of grain on the sabbath.
His disciples were hungry
and began to pick the heads of grain and eat them.
When the Pharisees saw this, they said to him,
“See, your disciples are doing what is unlawful to do on the sabbath.”
He said to the them, “Have you not read what David did
when he and his companions were hungry,
how he went into the house of God and ate the bread of offering,
which neither he nor his companions
but only the priests could lawfully eat?
Or have you not read in the law that on the sabbath
the priests serving in the temple violate the sabbath
and are innocent?
I say to you, something greater than the temple is here.
If you knew what this meant, I desire mercy, not sacrifice,
you would not have condemned these innocent men.
For the Son of Man is Lord of the sabbath.”

UK

First reading : Isaiah 38:1-6,21-22,7-8

Hezekiah fell ill and was at the point of death. The prophet Isaiah son of Amoz came and said to him, ‘The Lord says this, “Put your affairs in order, for you are going to die, you will not live.”’ Hezekiah turned his face to the wall and addressed this prayer to the Lord, ‘Ah, Lord, remember, I beg you, how I have behaved faithfully and with sincerity of heart in your presence and done what is right in your eyes.’ And Hezekiah shed many tears.

  Then the word of the Lord came to Isaiah, ‘Go and say to Hezekiah, “The Lord, the God of David your ancestor, says this: I have heard your prayer and seen your tears. I will cure you: in three days’ time you shall go up to the Temple of the Lord.” I will add fifteen years to your life. I will save you from the hands of the king of Assyria, I will protect this city.”’

  ‘Bring a fig poultice,’ Isaiah said, ‘apply it to the ulcer and he will recover.’ Hezekiah said, ‘What is the sign to tell me that I shall be going up to the Temple of the Lord?’ ‘Here’ Isaiah replied’’ ‘is the sign from the Lord that he will do what he has said. Look, I shall make the shadow cast by the declining sun go back ten steps on the steps of Ahaz.’ And the sun went back the ten steps by which it had declined.

Responsorial Psalm : Isaiah 38:10-12,16

The Canticle of Hezekiah

R. You have held back my life, O Lord, from the pit of doom.
I said, ‘So I must go away,
  my life half spent,
assigned to the world below
  for the rest of my years.’
R. You have held back my life, O Lord, from the pit of doom.
I said, ‘No more shall I see the Lord
  in the land of the living,
no more shall I look upon men
  within this world.
R. You have held back my life, O Lord, from the pit of doom.
‘My home is pulled up and removed
  like a shepherd’s tent.
Like a weaver you have rolled up my life,
  you cut it from the loom.
R. You have held back my life, O Lord, from the pit of doom.
‘For you, Lord, my heart will live,
  you gave me back my spirit;
you cured me, kept me alive,
  changed my sickness into health.’
R. You have held back my life, O Lord, from the pit of doom.

Gospel Acclamation : cf.Ps26:11

Alleluia, alleluia!
Instruct me, Lord, in your way;
on an even path lead me.
Alleluia!

or Jn10:27

Alleluia, alleluia!
The sheep that belong to me listen to my voice,
says the Lord,
I know them and they follow me.
Alleluia!

Gospel : Matthew 12:1-8

Jesus took a walk one sabbath day through the cornfields. His disciples were hungry and began to pick ears of corn and eat them. The Pharisees noticed it and said to him, ‘Look, your disciples are doing something that is forbidden on the sabbath.’ But he said to them, ‘Have you not read what David did when he and his followers were hungry – how he went into the house of God and how they ate the loaves of offering which neither he nor his followers were allowed to eat, but which were for the priests alone? Or again, have you not read in the Law that on the sabbath day the Temple priests break the sabbath without being blamed for it? Now here, I tell you, is something greater than the Temple. And if you had understood the meaning of the words: What I want is mercy, not sacrifice, you would not have condemned the blameless. For the Son of Man is master of the sabbath.’

Leo_XIII.
Pope Leo XIII

Prayers Ordered by Pope Leo XIII

To be said kneeling after the celebration of Low Mass.
P. Hail Mary, full of grace; The Lord is with thee; Blessed art thou amongst women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
P. Hail Mary, full of grace; The Lord is with thee; Blessed art thou amongst women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.Amen.
P. Hail Mary, full of grace; The Lord is with thee; Blessed art thou amongst women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

A. Hail, holy Queen, Mother of mercy, our life, our sweetness, and our hope. To thee do we cry, poor banished children of Eve. To thee do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in this valley of tears. Turn then, most gracious Advocate, thine eyes of mercy towards us. And after this our exile, show unto us the blessed Fruit of thy womb, Jesus. O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.
P. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God.
O. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

P. Let us pray. O God, our refuge and our strength, look down in mercy on Thy people who cry to Thee; and by the intercession of the glorious and immaculate Virgin Mary, Mother of God, of St. Joseph her Spouse, of Thy blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and of all the Saints, in mercy and goodness hear our prayers for the conversion of sinners, and for the liberty and exaltation of our holy Mother and Church. Through the same Christ our Lord.

A. Holy Michael Archangel, defend us in the day of battle; be our safeguard against the wickedness and snares of the devil. — May God rebuke him, we humbly pray: and do thou, Prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God thrust down to hell Satan and all wicked spirits, who wander through the world for the ruin of souls.

P. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus,
A. Have mercy upon us.
P. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus,
A. Have mercy upon us.
P. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus,
A. Have mercy upon us.




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