Catholic Today
Today’s Saints, Feasts & Solemnities, All Catholic Related History for this Day and the Daily Mass Readings for both the EF & OF of the Latin Rite

Today in the year of Our Lord 2016, is the Feast of Saints Henry II, Mildred and Clelia Barbieri




Saints Henry II (973-1024)

The rule of Henry II is seen as a period of centralized authority throughout the Empire. He consolidated his power by cultivating personal and political ties with the Church. He greatly expanded the Ottonian dynasty’s custom of employing clergy as counter-weights against secular nobles. Through donations to the Church and the establishment of new dioceses, Henry strengthened imperial rule across the Empire and increased control over ecclesiastical affairs. He stressed service to the Church and promoted monastic reform. For his personal holiness and efforts to support the Church, Pope Bl. Eugene III canonized him in 1146, making Henry II the only German monarch to be a saint.

Sincerely religious, Henry II supported service to the Church (he was celibate) and promoted various monastic reforms. He also strongly enforced clerical celibacy, perhaps partly in order that the public land and offices he granted to clerics would not be devised to heirs. He encouraged the reform of the Church, fostered missionary activity, and made several charitable foundations for the poor.

Henry II wished to become a monk, and in virtue of his imperial power he ordered the Abbot of Verdun to accept him in his monastery. Whereupon, the Abbot ordered him, in virtue of the vows he had professed, to continue the administration of the empire. Henry II fulfilled his duties in the spirit of humility and service, being convinced that temporal power was given by God for the good of the people.


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Henry II succeeded in persuading Pope Benedict VIII to include the word “Filioque” in the Nicene Creed. This word provided that the Holy Spirit emanated from both God the Father and God the Son.

The Ottonian dynasty had long used the Church as an integral part of the secular government of the Empire. This “Imperial–Church System” reached its climax under Henry II. Beginning with Emperor Otto I, the Ottonians used the Church as a major counter-force to the powerful German Stem duchies. The dukes had long been strong and powerful figures, looking to the interests of their respective duchies above the interests of the Empire as a whole. In an effort to unify the Empire under their leadership, the Ottonians increasingly associated themselves with the Church, claiming “divine right” to rule the Empire and presenting themselves as the protector of Christendom. As a key element of this policy, the Ottonians sought to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities, chiefly bishops and abbots, at the expense of the secular nobility.

Under Henry II, an increased number of counties were assigned to the secular rulership of bishops. He made large donations from imperial land to the monasteries and dioceses of the Empire. With these extensive donations and the expanded powers of the Emperor, the Church gradually lost its autonomy. The imperial monasteries and other Church institutions were so numerous, donations and the secular privileges granted them so broad, that they essentially developed into an imperial bureaucracy. The German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg describes the special relationship between Henry II and the bishops of the Empire as more intense than any other ruler in the early Middle Ages. Under Henry II, the division between secular and ecclesiastical affairs was blurred beyond distinction. This caused the clergy to look to the Henry II as their feudal lord, especially in the area of military service. The ecclesiastical rulers came to make up a large part of Henry II’s imperial army. For most of Henry II’s campaigns against Poland and the Byzantine Empire, the spiritual princes constituted the largest contingent. Henry II thus strengthened his control over the Empire through the clergy, while gaining a greater control over the Church’s spiritual policy.

St. Henry II was canonized in July 1147 by Pope Bl. Eugenius III; his spouse, Cunigunde was canonized on 29 March 1200 by Pope Innocent III. His relics were carried on campaigns against heretics in the 1160s.


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Saint Mildred (660-730) 

St. Mildred was the daughter of King Merewald of Magonset and his wife, St. Ermenburga (alias Aebbe of Minster-in-Thanet); and therefore sister of SS. Milburga and Milgith. At an early age, her mother sent her to be educated at Chelles in France, where many English ladies were trained to a saintly life.

A young nobleman, related to the Abbess of Chelles, entreated her to arrange that he might marry this English princess. The abbess tried to persuade her, but Mildred said her mother had sent her there to be taught, not to be married, and all the abbess’s advice, threats and blows failed to persuade her to accept the alliance offered to her. At last the abbess shut her up in an oven in which she had made a great fire; but after three hours, when she expected to find not only her flesh but her very bones burnt to ashes, the young saint came out unhurt and radiant with joy and beauty. The faithful, hearing of the miracle, venerated Mildred as a saint; but the abbess, more infuriated than ever, threw her on the ground, beat, kicked and scratched her and tore out a handful of her hair. Mildred found means to send her mother a letter, enclosing some of her hair, torn from her head by the violence of the abbess; and Queen Ermenburga soon sent ships to fetch her daughter. The abbess, fearing that her evil deeds should be made known, would, on no account, give permission for her departure. Mildred, however, fled by night; but, having in her haste forgotten some ecclesiastical vestments and a nail of the cross of Christ which she valued extremely, she managed to return for them and brought them safely away. Upon her arrival back in England, she landed at Ebbsfleet where she found a great square stone, miraculously prepared for her to step on from the ship. The stone received, and retained, the mark of her foot and was afterwards removed to the Abbey of Minster-in-Thanet and kept there in memory of her. Many diseases are said to have been cured for centuries after, by water containing a little dust from this stone. It was often removed from its first situation, until an oratory was built for it.


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With her mother’s consent, Mildred joined her at her foundation of Minster-in-Thanet. She was given the veil by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, at the same time as seventy other nuns. On St. Ermenburga’s death, Mildred succeeded her as Abbess of the community, to whom she set a holy example and by whom she was much beloved. An old story is recorded that one night, while she was praying in the church of her monastery, the devil blew out her candle, but an angel drove him away and relighted it for her.

Mildred died at Minster of a lingering and painful complaint, on 30th July AD 732. She was succeeded by St. Edburga of Minster-in-Thanet. During the latter’s rule, it apparently happened that the bell-ringer fell asleep before the altar. The departed Mildred awoke him with a box on the ear, exclaiming, “This is the oratory, not the dormitory!”


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Saint Clelia Barbieri (1847-1870)

Clelia was born in Bologna, Italy, in 1847 to Giacinta Nannetti and Giuseppe Barbieri, who were poor workers. She had a younger sister, Ernista, who was born in 1850. When her father died when she was just eight years old, she worked alongside her mother spinning hemp to support the family. During this time, her mother and younger sister moved into a house near the parish church through the generosity of her uncle. At an early age, Clelia began to spend her time in contemplative prayer. Despite her upbringing in relative poverty, Clelia was raised in a very religious household.

Clelia joined The Workers of Christian Catechism as an assistant teacher at the age of 14. She became such an inspirational leader in the community that the parish priest, Don Gaetano Guido, entrusted her with teaching and guiding young girls in Christian doctrine. By the time she was 17, she rejected marriage offers, opting instead to lead a pious life.

Clelia eventually founded a separate group, the Suore Minime dell’Addolorata May 1, 1868, when she was only 21. The group began to minister to the poor and sick in the community.

Two years after founding the congregation, Clelia Barbieri died of tuberculosis on July 13, 1870.


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In an effort to include all Catholics, those who go to the EF & OF of the Latin Rite, you may notice some Saints not mentioned in your Missal or Liturgical Calendar – this is because we are including all Saints from both Calendars. Because of this some Feast days will be repeated throughout the year



Today in Catholic History

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Today in 574 Pope John III receives his eternal reward.

His pontificate is characterized by two major events over which he had no control. The first was the death of Emperor Justinian I in 565. With his death, the Byzantine Empire turned its attention from Rome and the West to pressing problems in the Balkans, from the Avars, Persians and the Arabs. “Italy, being geographically peripheral to the imperial heartland, inevitably took bottom place on the strategic priority list.”

The other major event was the invasion of the Lombards, which began in 568. Much of northern Italy was overrun, as well as the central spine of the peninsula, making a shambles of the imperial administration. Further, their warriors threatened the survival of Rome herself, subjecting the Eternal City to repeated sieges. Lastly, their entrance reintroduced the newly extinguished Arian belief, which threatened the unity of the Church.

As the Lombards poured south into Italy, the newly appointed governor Longinus sat powerless in Ravenna, unable to stop them. Pope John took it upon himself to go to Naples, where the former governor Narses was preparing to return to Constantinople, and beg him to take charge. He had been recalled by the new Emperor Justin II in response to Italian petitions over his oppressive taxation. Narses agreed to this, and returned to Rome. However, popular hatred of Narses was then extended to John for inviting him back. This unrest reached such a pitch that the Pope was forced to retire from Rome and take up residence at the catacombs along the Via Appia two miles outside the city. There he carried out his duties, including the consecration of bishops.

 

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Today in 939Pope Leo VII receives his eternal reward.

As pope, Leo VII reigned for only three years. Most of his bulls were grants of privilege to monasteries, especially including the Abbey of Cluny. Leo called for Odo of Cluny to mediate between Alberic and Hugh of Italy, Alberic’s stepfather, the King of Italy. Odo was successful in negotiating a truce after arranging a marriage between Hugh’s daughter Alda and Alberic. Leo VII also appointed Frederick, Archbishop of Mainz, as a reformer in Germany. Leo allowed Frederick to drive out Jews that refused to be baptized, but he did not endorse the forced baptism of Jews.

 

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Today in 1205 Hubert Walter, English archbishop and politician, Lord Chancellor of The United Kingdom receives his eternal reward (b. 1160)

He was an influential royal adviser in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries in the positions of Chief Justiciar of England, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor. As chancellor, Walter began the keeping of the Charter Roll, a record of all charters issued by the chancery. Walter was not noted for his holiness in life or learning, but historians have judged him one of the most outstanding government ministers in English history.

Walter owed his early advancement to his uncle Ranulf de Glanvill, who helped him become a clerk of the Exchequer. Walter served King Henry II of England in many ways, not just in financial administration, but also including diplomatic and judicial efforts. After an unsuccessful candidacy to the see of York, Walter was elected Bishop of Salisbury shortly after the accession of Henry’s son Richard I to the throne of England.

Walter accompanied Richard on the Third Crusade, and was one of the principals involved in raising Richard’s ransom after the king was captured in Germany on his return from the Holy Land. As a reward for his faithful service, Walter was selected to become Archbishop of Canterbury in 1193. He also served as Richard’s justiciar until 1198, in which role he was responsible for raising the money Richard needed to prosecute his wars in France. Walter set up a system that was the precursor for the modern justices of the peace, based on selecting four knights in each hundred to administer justice. He also revived his predecessor’s dispute over setting up a church to rival Christ Church Priory in Canterbury, which was only settled when the pope ordered him to abandon the plan. Following Richard’s death in 1199, Walter helped assure the elevation of Richard’s brother John to the throne. Walter also served John as a diplomat, undertaking several missions to France.

 

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Today in 1260 – The Livonian Order suffers its greatest defeat in the 13th century in the Battle of Durbe against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Numerous rebellions against the Teutonic Order across all Baltic lands followed, including the Great Prussian Uprising, which lasted from 1260 to 1274. Zemgale rebelled for 30 years while Courland surrendered in 1267. The Curonians, together with the Samogitians, attacked Teutonic castles west of the Venta River. On 3 February 1261, on their way back, the pagans again defeated the knights near Lielvārde(Lennenwarden), killing 10.Oeselian rebellion was suppressed in 1261. These battles undid some 20 years of Livonian conquest and it took some thirty years for the Livonian Order to restore its control.

In the aftermath of the defeat, Duke Treniota is alleged to have convinced his uncle Mindaugas, King of Lithuania, to deny his Christianity and break the peace with the Teutonic Order. Treniota organized military campaigns into Livonia and earned support from the Lithuanians. In 1263, Treniota assassinated Mindaugas and usurped the Lithuanian throne, and the nation reverted to paganism. Ensuing instability prevented the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from taking full advantage of the weakened orders, however, while the orders were occupied reconquering rebelling territories and did not pose a danger to Lithuania until the 1280s. In this sense, the battle bought time for the new Lithuanian state to mature, strengthen, and expand before facing a full-scale crusade.

 

Today in 1399Peter Parler, German architect, designed St. Vitus Cathedral and Charles Bridge receives his eternal reward (b. 1330)

Peter Parler became the master mason of Saint Vitus Cathedral in 1352, after the death of its original architect,Matthias of Arras. Apart from the cathedral, he was the main designer of the New Town of Prague and built Charles Bridge and its towers. In the Royal Palace of Prague Castle, Parler built the All Saints’ Chapel. After the fire of 1541 it was redecorated in the Baroque style. He was a Master sculptor, he designed the gargoles of St Vitus Cathedral! Giving ornamentation to the original Design by Mathias Arras. He was apparently the architect of the Church of Our Lady (Frauenkirche) built in the market square of Nuremberg, to replace the synagogue torn down in the pogrom of 1349 following the plague. Between 1360-78 Parler built the chancel of the St. Bartholomew church in Kolín. He died in Prague in 1399, and was buried in the St Vitus Cathedral. His work was continued by his sons Wenzel and Johann.

 

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Today in 1490John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church in Hrastovlje (now southwestern Slovenia).

Holy Trinity Church is a historical building in Hrastovlje, a village in southwestern Slovenia. There are two hypotheses about its origin. According to the first, it is a Romanesque church from the 12th century. According to the second, it is an example of the Istrian variant of Early Venetian Renaissance architecture from the 15th century. The church stands behind a wall that the local population built to protect itself from Turkish attacks in the 16th century. Such defensive architectures are found throughout the territory settled by Slovenians and are called tabor.

 

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Today in 1573 Eighty Years’ War: The Siege of Haarlem ends after seven months.

The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years’ War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, whose loyalties had begun wavering during the previous summer. After the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an heroic example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar and Leiden.

 

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Today in 1590Pope Clement X is born (d. 1676)

On 29 April 1670, the papacy was offered to him by fifty-nine Cardinals present at the election; only two being against him. He, however, objected because of his age, for he was almost eighty, and exclaimed, “I am too old to bear such a burden.” Pointing to Cardinal Brancaccio, Altieri said he was the Cardinal whom they ought to elect. He persisted in refusing, protesting that he no longer had strength or memory; eventually, with tears he accepted, and out of gratitude to his benefactor, by ten years his junior, he assumed the name of Clement X. He was crowned on 11 May.

On 12 April 1671, Clement X canonised five new saints:

Fernando III called El Santo (the Saint), (1198/1199 – 30 May 1252) was a king of Castile (1217–1252) and Leon (1230–1252). He was the son of Alfonso IX and Berenguela of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII. In 1231 he united Castile and León permanently. Fernando was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

He beatifiedPope Pius V (1566–72), Francis Solano, and John of the Cross, all subsequently canonized by Clement XI and Pope Benedict XIII (1724–30). Clement X also declared Venerable one of the famous Spanish mystics, Sister María de Jesús de Ágreda.

Clement X, on 24 November 1673, beatified nineteen Martyrs of Gorkum, taken prisoner at Gorcum, the Netherlands, and put to death in Brielle on 9 July 1572, in hatred of the Catholic faith, the primacy of the Pope, and the Church. Of the nineteen Gorcum martyrs, eleven were Franciscan priests; Peter Ascanius and Cornelius Vican, laymen; one Dominican, two Premonstratensian monks, a regular canon of Saint Augustine, and four secular parish priests.

On 13 January 1672, Clement X regulated the formalities to be observed in removing the relics of saints from sacred cemeteries. No one was to remove such relics without the permission of the cardinal-vicar. They were not to be exposed for the veneration of the faithful, unless previously examined by the same cardinal. The principal relics of the martyr – that is to say, the head, the legs, the arms, and the part in which they suffered – were to be exposed only in the churches, and they were not to be given to private persons, but only to princes and high prelates; and even to them but rarely, lest the too great profusion should deprive relics of the respect which they ought to inspire. The Pope decreed severe penalties against all who gave a relic any name but that given by the cardinal-vicar. The pain of excommunication was pronounced against all who should demand any sum whatever for sealed and authentic relics. These decrees, and others made by preceding Popes, were confirmed by Pope Clement XI (1700–21) in 1704.

In 1673, there arrived at Rome ambassadors from the Grand Duke of Muscovy, Alexei not John Basilowitz. He solicited from the Pope the title of Czar, which, however, he had already conferred upon himself. At the same time it could not be forgotten that he gave strong financial aid to King John Sobieski of Poland in their fight against the Turkish invaders. But Paul Menesius, a Scotsman, who was the ambassador, could not obtain the grant or sanction of that title, though he was received with great magnificence and had many precious gifts to carry back to his master. The Grand Duke of Muscovy did not profess the Catholic faith in such a manner as to give any assurance of his intentions, and the King of Poland had looked upon the embassy with displeasure.

Queen Christina of Sweden, who had become a Catholic and moved to Rome in December 1655, made Clement X prohibit the custom of chasing Jews through the streets during the carnival. In 1686 she issued a declaration that Roman Jews stood under her protection, signedla Regina – the queen.

On the 22 July 1676, the agonies of the gout became so violent that Clement X died under them. He was eighty-six years old, and had governed the Church six years, two months, and twenty-four days. His tomb is in St. Peter’s Basilica.

 

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Today in 1608 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor is born (d. 1657)

Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.

Educated by the Jesuits, he became King of Hungary in 1625, King of Bohemia in 1627 and Archduke of Austria in 1621.

In 1627 Ferdinand enhanced his authority and set an important legal and military precedent by issuing a Revised Land Ordinance that deprived the Bohemian estates of their right to raise soldiers, reserving this power solely for the monarch.

Following the death of Wallenstein (who had previously denied him the overall military command of the Catholic side) in 1634, he was made titular head of the Imperial Army in the Thirty Years’ War, and later that year joined with his cousin, the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, being nominally responsible of the capture of Donauwörth and Regensburg, and of defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen. Leader of the peace party at court, he helped negotiate the Peace of Prague with the Protestant states, especially Saxony in 1635.

Having been elected King of the Romans in 1636, he succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. He hoped to be able to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on for another 11 years, finally coming to an end with the Peace of Westphalia (Treaty of Münster with France, Treaty of Osnabrück with Sweden) in 1648, both negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a diplomat who had been made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II.

During the last period of the war, in 1644 Ferdinand III gave to all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy (ius belli ac pacis). This way the emperor was trying to gain more allies in the negotiations with France and Sweden. This very edict contributed to the gradual erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire.

After 1648 the emperor was engaged in carrying out the terms of the treaty and ridding Germany of the foreign soldiery. In 1656 he sent an army into Italy to assist Spain in her struggle with France, and he had just concluded an alliance with Poland to check the aggressions of Charles X of Sweden when he died on 2 April 1657.

 

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Today in 1621 Albert VII, Archduke of Austria receives his eternal reward (b. 1559)

He was the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621. On 3 March 1577 he was appointed cardinal by Pope Gregory XIII, with a dispensation because of his age of eighteen, and was given Santa Croce in Gerusalemme as his titular church. In the meantime Albert only took lower orders. He was never ordained priest or bishop, and thus he resigned the See of Toledo in 1598. He resigned the Cardinalate in 1598. His clerical upbringing did however have a lasting influence on his lifestyle. After the dynastic union with Portugal, Albert became the first viceroy of the kingdom and its overseas empire in 1583. At the same time he was appointed Papal Legate and Grand Inquisitor for Portugal. As viceroy of Portugal he took part in the organization of the Great Armada of 1588 and beat off an English counter-attack on Lisbon in 1589. In 1593 Philip II recalled him to Madrid, where he would take a leading role in the government of the Spanish Monarchy. He succeeded his brother Matthias as reigning archduke of Lower and Upper Austria, but abdicated in favor of Ferdinand II the same year, making it the shortest (and often ignored) reign in Austrian history.

The first half of the reign of Albert and Isabella was dominated by war. After overtures to the United Provinces and to Queen Elizabeth I of England proved unsuccessful, the Habsburg policy in the Low Countries aimed at regaining the military initiative and isolating the Dutch Republic. The strategy was to force its opponents to the conference table and negotiate from a position of strength. Even if Madrid and Brussels tended to agree on these options, Albert took a far more flexible stance than his brother-in-law, King Philip III of Spain. Albert had first hand knowledge of the devastation wrought by the Dutch Revolt and had come to the conclusion that it would be impossible to reconquer the northern provinces. Quite logically, Philip III and his councillors felt more concern for Spain’s reputation and for the impact that a compromise with the Dutch Republic might have on Habsburg positions as a whole. Spain provided the means to continue the war. Albert took the decisions on the ground and tended to ignore Madrid’s instructions. Under the circumstances, the division of responsibilities repeatedly led to tensions.

Spínola’s campaigns and the threat of diplomatic isolation induced the Dutch Republic to accept a ceasefire in April 1607. The subsequent negotiations between the warring parties failed to produce a peace treaty. They did lead however to conclusion of the Twelve Years’ Truce in Antwerp on 9 April 1609. Under the terms of the Truce, the United Provinces were to be regarded as a sovereign power for the duration of the truce. Albert had conceded this point against the will of Madrid and it took him a lot of effort to persuade Philip III to ratify the agreement. When Philip’s ratification finally arrived, Albert’s quest for the restoration of peace in the Low Countries had finally paid off.

The years of the Truce gave the Habsburg Netherlands a much needed breathing-space. The fields could again be worked in safety. The archducal regime encouraged the reclaiming of land that had been inundated in the course of the hostilities and sponsored the impoldering of the Moeren, a marshy area that is presently astride the Belgian–French border. The recovery of agriculture led in turn to a modest increase of the population after decades of demographic losses. Industry and in particular the luxury trades likewise underwent a recovery. International trade was however hampered by the closure of the river Scheldt. The archducal regime had plans to bypass the blockade with a system of canals linking Ostend via Bruges to the Scheldt in Ghent and joining the Meuse to the Rhine between Venlo and Rheinberg. In order to combat urban poverty, the government supported the creation of a network of Monti di Pietà based on the Italian model.

Meanwhile, the archducal regime ensured the triumph of the Catholic Reformation in the Habsburg Netherlands. Most Protestants had by that stage left the Southern Netherlands. After one last execution in 1597, those that remained were no longer actively persecuted. Under the terms of legislation passed in 1609, their presence was tolerated, provided they did not worship in public. Engaging in religious debates was also forbidden by law. The resolutions of the Third Provincial Council of Mechlin of 1607 were likewise given official sanction. Through such measures and by the appointment of a generation of able and committed bishops, Albert and Isabella laid the foundation of the Catholic confessionalisation of the population.

In the process of re-Catholisation, new and reformed religious orders enjoyed the particular support of Albert and Isabella. Even though the Archduke had certain reservations about the order, the Jesuits received the largest cash grants, allowing them to complete their ambitious building programmes in Brussels and Antwerp. Other champions of the Catholic Reformation, such as the Capuchins, were also given considerable sums. The foundation of the first convents of Discalced Carmelites in the Southern Netherlands depended wholly on the personal initiative of the archducal couple and bore witness to the Spanish orientation of their spirituality.

 

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Today in 1643English Civil War: Battle of Roundway Down: In England, Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, heavily defeats the Parliamentarian forces led by Sir William Waller.

Roundway Down was the greatest cavalry victory of the English Civil War. The Royalists christened the battle “Runaway Down”. The defeat of an army arrayed in proper battle order on high ground by a column of cavalry that had just ridden down from Oxford was regarded as remarkable.

Waller had previously been favoured to replace the Earl of Essex as lord general of the Parliamentarian armies. His defeat at Roundway Down made this impossible. Waller and his supporters criticised Essex for his perceived inactivity, which had allowed the royalists to detach Wilmot’s cavalry from Oxford.

The Parliamentarian field army in south-west England was destroyed, allowing the Royalists to capture the port and major city of Bristol a few weeks later; this period of Royalist successes was referred to as the “Royalist summer”.

The “village” of Roundway is today a small hamlet 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of central Devizes, with a population of around 25 residents. There is a discussion of possible burial sites for the battle on the Devizes heritage website with an outline of the research evidence.

 

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Today in 1793 – Journalist and French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a member of the opposing political faction.

Corday’s decision to kill Marat was stimulated not only by her revulsion at the September Massacres, for which she held Marat responsible, but by her fear of an all-out civil war. She believed that Marat was threatening the Republic, and that his death would end violence throughout the nation. She also believed that King Louis XVI should not have been executed.

 

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Today in 1807 – Italian Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart receives his eternal reward (b. 1725)

He was the fourth and final Jacobite heir to claim the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland publicly. Unlike his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, and brother,Charles Edward Stuart, Henry made no effort to seize the throne. After Charles’s death in January 1788 the Papacy did not recognise Henry as the lawful ruler of England, Scotland, and Ireland, but referred to him as the Cardinal Duke of York.

At the time of the French Revolution, he lost his French Royal benefices and sacrificed many other resources to assist Pope Pius VI. This, in addition to the seizure of his Frascati property by the French, caused him to descend into poverty. The British Minister in Venice arranged for Henry to receive an annuity of £4,000 from King George III of Great Britain. Although the British government represented this as an act of charity, Henry and the Jacobites considered it to be a first installment on the money which was legally owed to him. (For many years the British government had promised to return the English dowry of his grandmother, Mary of Modena, but never did so.)

He spent his life in the Papal States and had a long career in the clergy of the Church, rising to become the Dean of the College of Cardinals and Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia and Velletri. At the time of his death he was (and still is) one of the longest serving Cardinals in the Church’s history. He died there on 13 July 1807, aged 82.

 

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Today in 1878Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romaniabecome completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.

Is there a noteworthy historical date that isn’t mentioned, leave a comment and let us know




Mass Readings according to the 1960 Rubrics of the Latin Rite

(Extraordinary Form)

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Lesson / Lectio

Rom 8:12-17

Brethren: We are debtors, not to the flesh, that we should live according to the flesh, for if you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the spirit you put to death the deeds of the flesh, you will live. For whoever are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. Now you have not received a spirit of bondage so as to be again in fear, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons, by virtue of which we cry, Abba! Father! The Spirit Himself gives testimony to our spirit that we are sons of God. But if we are sons, we are heirs also: heirs indeed of God and joint heirs with Christ.

R. Thanks be to God.

 

Fratres: Debitóres sumus non carni, ut secúndum carnem vivámus. Si enim secúndum carnem vixéritis, moriémini: si autem spíritu facta carnis mortificavéritis, vivétis. Quicúmque enim spíritu Dei aguntur, ii sunt fílii Dei. Non enim accepístis spíritum servitútis íterum in timóre, sed accepístis spíritum adoptiónis filiórum, in quo clamámus: Abba – Pater. – Ipse enim Spíritus testimónium reddit spirítui nostro, quod sumus fílii Dei. Si autem fílii, et herédes: herédes quidem Dei, coherédes autem Christi.

R. Deo gratias.

Gradual / Graduale

1964=The celebrant is not to say privately those parts sung or recited by the Choir or congregation; he may sing or recite along

Ps 30:3

Be my rock of refuge, O God, a stronghold to give me safety.

 

Esto mihi in Deum protectórem, et in locum refúgii, ut salvum me fácias.

ALLELUIA

Ps 70:1

V. In You, O God, I take refuge; O Lord, let me never be put to shame. Alleluia, alleluia.

 

V. Deus, in te sperávi: Dómine, non confúndar in ætérnum. Allelúia, allelúia

Ps 47:2

V. Great is the Lord and wholly to be praised in the city of our God, His holy mountain. Alleluia.

 

Magnus Dóminus, et laudábilis valde, in civitáte Dei nostri, in monte sancto eius. Allelúia.

Gospel / Evangelium

The Missal is transferred to the other side of the altar to symbolize that the divine favor was taken away from the unfaithful Jews and given to the Gentiles. At Low Masses, the priest, bowing down at the middle of the altar, with his hands joined, says:

Si vero Sacerdos sine Diacono et Subdiacono celebrat, de-lato libro ad aliud cornu Altaris, inclinatus in medio, iunctis manibus dicit:

Cleanse my heart and my lips, O almighty God, who didst cleanse the lips of the prophet Isaias with a burning coal, and vouchsafe, through Thy gracious mercy, so to purify me, that I may worthily announce Thy holy Gospel. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Give me Thy blessing, O Lord. The Lord be in my heart and on my lips, that I may worthily and in a becoming manner, proclaim His holy Gospel. Amen.

P. The Lord be with you.
S. And with thy spirit.
Continuation ☩ of the Holy Gospel according to Luke
R. Glory be to Thee, O Lord.

 

Munda cor meum, ac labia mea, omnípotens Deus, qui labia Isaíæ Prophétæ cálculo mundásti igníto: ita me tua grata miseratióne dignáre mundáre, ut sanctum Evangélium tuum digne váleam nuntiáre. Per Christum, Dóminum nostrum. Amen.

Iube, Dómine, benedícere. Dóminus sit in corde meo et in lábiis meis: ut digne et competénter annúntiem Evangélium suum. Amen.

Deinde, conversus ad librum, iunctis manibus, dicit:
V. Dóminus vobíscum.
R. Et cum spíritu tuo.

Sequéntia ✠ sancti Evangélii secúndum Matthaeum.
R. Gloria tibi, Domine!

Luke 16:1-9

At that time, Jesus spoke to His disciples this parable: There was a certain rich man who had a steward, who was reported to him as squandering his possessions. And he called him and said to him, ‘What is this that I hear of you? Make an accounting of your stewardship, for you can be steward no longer.’ And the steward said within himself, ‘What shall I do, seeing that my master is taking away the stewardship from me? To dig I am not able; to beg I am ashamed. I know what I shall do, that when I am removed from my stewardship they may receive me into their houses.’ And he summoned each of his master’s debtors and said to the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’ And he said, ‘A hundred jars of oil.’ He said to him, ‘Take your bond and sit down at once and write fifty.’ Then he said to another, ‘How much do you owe?’ He said, ‘A hundred kors of wheat.’ He said to him, ‘Take your bond and write eighty.’ And the master commended the unjust steward, in that he had acted prudently; for the children of this world, in relation to their own generation, are more prudent than the children of the light. And I say to you, make friends for yourselves with the mammon of wickedness, so that when you fail they may receive you into the everlasting dwellings.

R. Praise be to Thee, O Christ.
S. By the words of the Gospel may our sins be blotted out.

 

In illo témpore: Dixit Iesus discípulis suis parábolam hanc: Homo quidam erat dives, qui habébat víllicum: et hic diffamátus est apud illum, quasi dissipásset bona ipsíus. Et vocávit illum et ait illi: Quid hoc audio de te? redde ratiónem villicatiónis tuæ: iam enim non póteris villicáre. Ait autem víllicus intra se: Quid fáciam, quia dóminus meus aufert a me villicatiónem? fódere non váleo, mendicáre erubésco. Scio, quid fáciam, ut, cum amótus fúero a villicatióne, recípiant me in domos suas. Convocátis itaque síngulis debitóribus dómini sui, dicébat primo: Quantum debes dómino meo? At ille dixit: Centum cados ólei. Dixítque illi: Accipe cautiónem tuam: et sede cito, scribe quinquagínta. Deínde álii dixit: Tu vero quantum debes? Qui ait: Centum coros trítici. Ait illi: Accipe lítteras tuas, et scribe octogínta. Et laudávit dóminus víllicum iniquitátis, quia prudénter fecísset: quia fílii huius saeculi prudentióres fíliis lucis in generatióne sua sunt. Et ego vobis dico: fácite vobis amicos de mammóna iniquitátis: ut, cum defecéritis, recípiant vos in ætérna tabernácula.

R. Laus tibi, Christe!
S. Per Evangelica dicta, deleantur nostra delicta.

Homily is obligatory in Sunday Holy Days of obligations and if some number of faithful are gathered for the Mass

Post Communion / Postcommunio

P. The Lord be with you.
S. And with thy spirit.
Let us pray.
May the heavenly sacrament, O Lord, renew our minds and bodies, so that we may feel the benefit of the worship we perform.
Through Jesus Christ, thy Son our Lord, Who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end.
R. Amen.

 

S. Dóminus vobíscum.
R. Et cum spíritu tuo.
Orémus.
Sit nobis, Dómine, reparátio mentis et córporis cæléste mystérium: ut, cuius exséquimur cultum, sentiámus efféctum.
Per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, Filium tuum: qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum.
R. Amen.

Leo_XIII.
Pope Leo XIII

Oratio Leonis XIII

S. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructis ventris tui, Iesus.
O. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
S. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructis ventris tui, Iesus.
O. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
S. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructis ventris tui, Iesus.
O. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.

O. Salve Regina, Mater misericordiae, vita, dulcedo, et spes nostra, salve. Ad te clamamus, exsules filii Evae. Ad te suspiramus gementes et fientes in hac lacrymarum valle. Eia ergo, Advocata nostra, illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos converte. Et Iesum, benedictum fructum ventris tui, nobis, post hoc exilium, ostende. O clemens, o pia, o dulcis Virgo Maria.
S. Ora pro nobis, sancta Dei Genitrix.
O. Ut digni efficiamur promissionibus Christi.

S. Orémus. Deus, refúgium nostrum et virtus, populum ad te clamantem propitius respice; et intercedente gloriosa, et immaculata Virgine Dei Genitrice Maria, cum beato Ioseph, eius Sponso, ac beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, et omnibus Sanctis, quas pro conversione peccatorum, pro libertate et exaltatione sanctae Matris Ecclesiae, preces effundimus, misericors et benignus exaudi. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

O. Sancte Michaël Archangele, defende nos in proelio; contra nequitiam et insidias diaboli esto praesidium. Imperet illi Deus, supplices deprecamur: tuque, Princeps militiae Caelestis, satanam aliosque spiritus malignos, qui ad perditionem animarum pervagantur in mundo, divina virtute in infernum detrude. Amen.

S. Cor Iesu sacratissimum.
O. Miserere nobis.
S. Cor Iesu sacratissimum.
O. Miserere nobis.
S. Cor Iesu sacratissimum.
O. Miserere nobis.




Mass Readings according to 2002 Rubrics of the Latin Rite Ordinary Form

USA Translation is from the The New American Bible, Revised Edition (NABRE) Source USCCB Website

UK Translation is from the Jerusalem Bible Source Universalis Website

rosary-bibleWednesday of the Fifteenth Week in Ordinary Time – Lectionary: 391
According to the USCCB -The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, the ICBC The Irish Conference of Catholic Bishops and the CBCEW The Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales

USA

Reading 1 : Isaiah 10:5-7, 13B-16

Thus says the LORD:
Woe to Assyria! My rod in anger,
my staff in wrath.
Against an impious nation I send him,
and against a people under my wrath I order him
To seize plunder, carry off loot,
and tread them down like the mud of the streets.
But this is not what he intends,
nor does he have this in mind;
Rather, it is in his heart to destroy,
to make an end of nations not a few.

For he says:
“By my own power I have done it,
and by my wisdom, for I am shrewd.
I have moved the boundaries of peoples,
their treasures I have pillaged,
and, like a giant, I have put down the enthroned.
My hand has seized like a nest
the riches of nations;
As one takes eggs left alone,
so I took in all the earth;
No one fluttered a wing,
or opened a mouth, or chirped!”

Will the axe boast against him who hews with it?
Will the saw exalt itself above him who wields it?
As if a rod could sway him who lifts it,
or a staff him who is not wood!
Therefore the Lord, the LORD of hosts,
will send among his fat ones leanness,
And instead of his glory there will be kindling
like the kindling of fire.

Responsorial Psalm : Psalm 94:5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 14-15

R. (14a) The Lord will not abandon his people.
Your people, O LORD, they trample down,
your inheritance they afflict.
Widow and stranger they slay,
the fatherless they murder.
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
And they say, “The LORD sees not;
the God of Jacob perceives not.”
Understand, you senseless ones among the people;
and, you fools, when will you be wise?
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
Shall he who shaped the ear not hear?
or he who formed the eye not see?
Shall he who instructs nations not chastise,
he who teaches men knowledge?
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
For the LORD will not cast off his people,
nor abandon his inheritance;
But judgment shall again be with justice,
and all the upright of heart shall follow it.
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.

AlleluiaMT 11:25

R. Alleluia, alleluia.
Blessed are you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth,
you have revealed to little ones the mysteries of the Kingdom.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.

Gospel : Mathew 11:25-27

At that time Jesus exclaimed:
“I give praise to you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth,
for although you have hidden these things
from the wise and the learned
you have revealed them to the childlike.
Yes, Father, such has been your gracious will.
All things have been handed over to me by my Father.
No one knows the Son except the Father,
and no one knows the Father except the Son
and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him.”

UK

First reading : Isaiah 10:5-7,13-16

The Lord of hosts says this:
Woe to Assyria, the rod of my anger,
the club brandished by me in my fury!
I sent him against a godless nation;
I gave him commission against a people that provokes me,
to pillage and to plunder freely
and to stamp down like the mud in the streets.
But he did not intend this,
his heart did not plan it so.
No, in his heart was to destroy,
to go on cutting nations to pieces without limit.
For he has said:
‘By the strength of my own arm I have done this
and by my own intelligence, for understanding is mine;
I have pushed back the frontiers of peoples
and plundered their treasures.
I have brought their inhabitants down to the dust.
As if they were a bird’s nest, my hand has seized
the riches of the peoples.
As people pick up deserted eggs
I have picked up the whole earth,
with not a wing fluttering,
not a beak opening, not a chirp.’
Does the axe claim more credit than the man who wields it,
or the saw more strength than the man who handles it?
It would be like the cudgel controlling the man who raises it,
or the club moving what is not made of wood!
And so the Lord of Hosts is going to send
a wasting sickness on his stout warriors;
beneath his plenty, a burning will burn
like a consuming fire.

Responsorial Psalm : Psalm 93:5-10,14-15

R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
They crush your people, Lord,
  they afflict the ones you have chosen
They kill the widow and the stranger
  and murder the fatherless child.
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
And they say: ‘The Lord does not see;
  the God of Jacob pays no heed.’
Mark this, most senseless of people;
  fools, when will you understand?
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
Can he who made the ear, not hear?
  Can he who formed the eye, not see?
Will he who trains nations not punish?
  Will he who teaches men, not have knowledge?
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.
The Lord will not abandon his people
  nor forsake those who are his own;
for judgement shall again be just
  and all true hearts shall uphold it.
R. The Lord will not abandon his people.

Gospel Acclamation : Mt11:25

Alleluia, alleluia!
Blessed are you, Father,
Lord of heaven and earth,,
for revealing the mysteries of the kingdom
to mere children.
Alleluia!

Gospel : Matthew 11:25-27

Jesus exclaimed, ‘I bless you, Father, Lord of heaven and of earth, for hiding these things from the learned and the clever and revealing them to mere children. Yes, Father, for that is what it pleased you to do. Everything has been entrusted to me by my Father; and no one knows the Son except the Father, just as no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.’

Leo_XIII.
Pope Leo XIII

 


Prayers Ordered by Pope Leo XIII

To be said kneeling after the celebration of Low Mass.
P. Hail Mary, full of grace; The Lord is with thee; Blessed art thou amongst women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
P. Hail Mary, full of grace; The Lord is with thee; Blessed art thou amongst women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
P. Hail Mary, full of grace; The Lord is with thee; Blessed art thou amongst women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

A. Hail, holy Queen, Mother of mercy, our life, our sweetness, and our hope. To thee do we cry, poor banished children of Eve. To thee do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in this valley of tears. Turn then, most gracious Advocate, thine eyes of mercy towards us. And after this our exile, show unto us the blessed Fruit of thy womb, Jesus. O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.
P. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God.
O. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

P. Let us pray. O God, our refuge and our strength, look down in mercy on Thy people who cry to Thee; and by the intercession of the glorious and immaculate Virgin Mary, Mother of God, of St. Joseph her Spouse, of Thy blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and of all the Saints, in mercy and goodness hear our prayers for the conversion of sinners, and for the liberty and exaltation of our holy Mother and Church. Through the same Christ our Lord.

A. Holy Michael Archangel, defend us in the day of battle; be our safeguard against the wickedness and snares of the devil. — May God rebuke him, we humbly pray: and do thou, Prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God thrust down to hell Satan and all wicked spirits, who wander through the world for the ruin of souls.

P. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus,
A. Have mercy upon us.
P. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus,
A. Have mercy upon us.
P. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus,
A. Have mercy upon us.




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